Acute Coronary Syndrome in Young Adults: Does really exist? Findings from a retrospective study

Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) among young adults are extremely rare, poorly studied and the cardiovascular risk underestimated. Purpose: Τo evaluate the prevalence of ACS in patients younger than 40 years old, to determine their risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD), as well as to correlate them with coronary angiography findings. Material and Method: A retrospective study was designed using data from patients’ clinical records of a provincial hospital. All patients who were hospitalized for ACS in a cardiology department within four years of time were included in the study and patients under 40 years old were contacted to provide information about their own coronary disease risk factors and the results of their coronary angiography. Results: 1,004 patients (mean age 68.3 yearsSD:12.84 years ) were hospitalized with ACS. Eventually, 18 young patients fulfilled the criteria and participated in the present study. Participants mean age was 35.6±3.3 years old and most were men (72.2%). 9 patients (50%) presented as STEMI, 3 patients (16.7%) were hospitalized as NSTEMI and 6 patients (33.3%) with unstable angina. Of the participants 15 (83.3%) were reported as smokers, only one had an known coronary artery disease history, the same patient had a history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2, while 5 patients (27.8%) had history of dyslipidemia and six (33.3%) had a positive family history of coronary heart disease. Coronary angiography was performed in 15 patients (83.3%) and six patients (33.3%) were found to have normal coronary arteries. Conclusions: ACS is a rare cause of hospitalization among young patients however, should not be overlooked. Risk factor profile had no relation with the type of ACS or the coronary angiography findings and in many cases one vessel disease or normal coronary arteries were identified.