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Introduction: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system affecting mainly young adults in the most productive period of their lives. Patients suffering from MS have to cope with a series of daily challenges, both personal and social, related directly or indirectly to the disease. The ensuing intense stress along with their reliance on “powerful others” (e.g. physicians), or their trust in luck, as has been documented in these patients, leads to distress which adversely affects their physical, social and mental health. Aim: Review of the methodology and efficacy of the “Chronic Disease Self-Management Course” (CDSMC) for chronic diseases, with special emphasis on MS. Method: A search was made in PubMed for pertinent studies. Results: There is evidence from published studies that interventions that enhance self-efficacy and challenge coping targeted on stressors can obviate the distress associated with MS. CDSMC has been implemented in developed societies in many countries and has been adopted by medical societies even health ministries (e.g., in Australia). The recent development of an effective online administration system for delivery of CDSMC has overcome the earlier obstacles to wider implementation of the method for patients with MS. Conclusions: CDSMC may facilitate adjustment by patients with MS to the sequelae of the disease. It is hoped that this review will sensitize the decision makers and health professionals working in Greece towards the problem and the benefits of adopting CDSMC.