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Indroduction: The short stay units (SSU) are destinated and designed for short term therapy, observation, appreciation, and reappraisal for patients who initially have examined in Emergency Department. Last years is observed a rising in use of SSU. This fact consists an indication for the necessity of SSU but sometimes it’s rational use remains an area of disputes. Aim: The purpose of this review is to highlight the necessity of SSU and to approach methods of rational use. Material and Μethod: A search was made of the electronic databases Google, Google Scholar, Cohrane, Pubmed and database from the National Archives of Doctoral Thesis in October 2019 using the key-words: «Short stay units», «observation units», and in conjunction with the words «definition», «exclusion and inclusion criteria», «admission», «emergency departments», «psychiatric patients», «protocols», «guidelines», «differences». Also in Greeks with the corresponding words. The material of this review has included articles in English from the year 1991 up to 2019 that investigated and reviewed subjects relative to necessity and rational use of SSU. Results: Many reasons highlight the necessity of SSU, among them, the short stay, the better cost/effectiveness, the infections control, the security of selected patients, the reduced hospitalizations. As there are differences between SSU the creation of universal criteria for rational use it becomes difficult. Conclusions: The right judgment of involved staff, the knowledge of the role of SSU and of basic concepts of inclusion and exclusion criteria for admission are proposed as some methods that may contribute in rational use of SSU. More investigation could help in integration of documented opinions in policy action plans with target the improvements in infrastructure, in education and in staff in the Emergency Departments and in the SSU that are part of them.