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The purpose of the present review study was to examine the role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus type I (InsulinDependent Diabetes Mellitus: IDDM) according to the literature. Diabetes is classified as type I and II and its pathogenesis is associated to genetic, immune and environmental factors. Studies have shown the positive effects of exercise in diabetes. These positive adaptations are caused by biochemical adjustments in muscle tissue. General findings suggest that physical activity is better than no exercise at all. Finally to avoid complications, it must be examined how these patients manage blood glucose during exercise. Diabetic’s exercise program should adapt specific training characteristics and should include aerobic, resistance, flexibility and functional exercise.