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Introduction: A wide range of maladaptive cognitive structures and specific negative dysfunctional thoughts, beliefs, cognitions regarding the self, the world and the future of the individual dominate the way that reality is perceived by individuals suffering from a variety of mental problems and, more specifically, from depressive symptomatology, while positive thoughts are considered as correspondingly dominating the way that healthier individuals perceive their selves, the world around them and their future. Aim: The aim of the present review was to explore literature data regarding the way social cognitions influence the individual’s mental health and, more specifically, the appearance of depressive symptomatology. Method: A literature review was conducted through Medline and PsychINFO databases, using the key-words: “social cognition”, “cognitive triad” and “depression”. Results: Certain dysfunctional hermeneutic schemas or maladaptive cognitive representations of the “world” and unrealistic social cognitions, used by society in order to interpret reality constitute usual characteristics of modern societies. The existence of dysfunctional social cognitions may prevent the development of harmonious relationships, support and communication between the members of the society. As a result, isolation, loneliness, anxiety, fear, feelings of dysphoria, sadness and distress are expected to be promoted and the individuals’ vulnerability to depressive symptomatology is expected to be increased, while the quality of their life is expected to be negatively influenced. Conclusions: The identification and replacement of maladaptive social cognitions, attitudes and beliefs by more positive models of thinking and behaviour may protect and improve mental health and prevent the development, persistence or recurrence of depressive disorders and may help individuals to overcome their difficulties, to achieve their personal objectives and goals more effectively and improve the quality of their life.