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Background: Recent progress in medicine and technology has produced a significant increase in the survival rate of critically ill patients who have been treated in intensive care units (ICU). Aim: Review of the mental health consequences and in particular the prevalence of major depression (MD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after discharge from the ICU. Method: Search was made in the SCOPUS, MEDLINE and CINAHL databases using the key-words “major depression”, “posttraumatic stress disorder”, “psychiatric effects”, “intensive care unit”, “risk factors”. The study was based on articles published in English from 1995 to 2010 investigating the prevalence of depression and PTSD in critically ill patients. Results: The search retrieved 1,306 references, of which only 47 studies met the inclusion criteria. Finally, 23 studies were included in this review, of which 16 were prospective, 3 cross-sectional, 2 case-control, 1 retrospective and 1 was a randomized controlled trial. Most of the studies were conducted in the USA and Britain. Factors such as gender, age, diagnosis at the time of admission to ICU, length of stay, duration of mechanical support, appearance of septic shock, disease severity, past medical history and quality of life were reviewed and correlated in all the studies. Conclusions: This literature review confirmed the correlation between hospitalization in the ICU and the prevalence of depression and PTSD, the symptoms of which aggravate the general state of health. Early recognition and treatment of depression and PTSD in critically ill patients could contribute to their faster recovery and improve their quality of life.
|Category:||Volume 51, N 3|
|Authors:||Evanthia Asimakopoulou , Michalis G. Madianos|