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Traditional nursing curricula have been criticized for relying exclusively on teaching methods that aim at the transmission of knowledge to studentspassive recipients and for being overloaded with theoretical content, which students fail to assimilate and apply to practice. Problem-based learning (PBL) has been proposed as a way to promote cohesion between theory and practice in nursing and as a method for the educational preparation of professionals with critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills. Problem-based learning is a student centered teaching method in which new knowledge is acquired through solving problems that originate from every day practice. The main characteristics of PBL are emphasis on the development of self-directed learning skills, freedom of the students to formulate learning objectives and focus on group work. The role of the teacher in PBL includes offering feedback, making insightful comments, suggesting possible sources of information, intervening to correct group dynamics. The outcomes of PBL include contributing to bridging the theory-practice gap, development of self-directed learning skills, development of critical thinking and development of interpersonal skills through group work.